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Nano Iron Synthesis by Biocompatible Green Reagents

Biopolymers:
Research has been performed to utilize non-toxic synthetic biocompatible materials for the synthesis, as well as for stabilisation of magnetic nanoparticles polymer composites. In this scenario, He et al. used water soluble starch for stabilisation of bimetallic Nano Fe Powders. Starch is a hydrophilic polymer, which consists of ~20% amylose; in this study, it was found that starch plays a significant role in dispersion and stabilisation of iron nanoparticles. In another study, synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles was achieved by a biopolymer sodium alginate by redox-based hydrothermal method using FeCl3·6H2O and urea as the starting materials. Sodium alginate fabricated nanoparticles showed uniform and spherical morphology with mean diameter of 27.2 nm. Well dispersed magnetite (Fe3O4) agar nanocomposite was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions for the first time by Jegan et al
Ascorbic acid:
Synthesis of Nano Fe Powder using ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) have been studied by Nadagouda et al. Core-shell Fe and Cu nanoparticles have been produced by using aqueous ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) which reduced the transition metal salts into their respective nanostructures. Likewise Savasari et al. used ascorbic acid to produce stabilised zero valent iron nanoparticles assembled in a chain in which individual particles were round in shape with a diameter of 20 to 75 nm. Moreover, ascorbic acid has been used as functionalizing and stabilizing agent for nanoparticles. In one study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were coated and further functionalised by using ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) to form a stable dispersion for medical application. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of the coated nanoparticles revealed that particles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 5 nm .
Amino acids:
Krishna et al. carried out research to produce amine functionalised magnetite nanoparticles by the wet chemical co-precipitation method. A highly crystalline magnetite phase was obtained by (in-situ) functionalisation with l-lysine amino acid. Similarly, Siskova et al. used different amino acids such as l-glutamic acid, l-glutamine, l-arginine and l-cysteine to synthesize zero valent iron and studied the effect of pH on zero valet iron generation.
Haemoglobin and myoglobin: In one study, Sayyad et al. reported the one-pot synthesis of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) from naturally available Fe-containing bio-precursors, i.e., haemoglobin and myoglobin. A single-phase chemical reduction reaction produced the stable iron nanoparticles at room temperature. The size distribution of the synthesised particles fall into the narrow 2–5 nm range and the particles were observed to be crystalline. This strategy can be an important valuable engineering approach for fabrication of bio-conjugated nanoparticle for biological applications.

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